Passage 1

(1)The types of daydreamswhether they are pleasant and hopeful or filled with despair take shape in childhood when everyone develops one of three basic daydreaming stylespositivenegative and scattereAmerican Health reports. Although everyone lapses occasionally into each of these typespositive daydreams are more likely to imagine happyplayful or entertaining scenarios.

(2)Negative daydreamers tend to dwell on life's darker side imagining dangerous and/or life threatening situationssuch as the appearance of a fatal or weakening disease or becoming a victim of violence. Scattered daydreamers are easily bored and distracted."Their mental images tend to be fleetingrepetitive and shallowlike variations on the same fairy tales"explains Yale psychologist Ron Tower.

(3)While all three types are commonpositive imaginations are likeliest to serve as springboards(跳板)for problem solvingwhile negative and scattered daydreams may leave a person feeling anxious. Negative daydreamers are waiting for the other shoe "to fall."Their imaginations are often guilt-ridden or obsessive. There are times when drifting away can cause problemsaccording to Bolin."If daydreaming gets in the way of daily function because the person is doing it all daythe person won't be very productive"she says"The amount of time and the frequency that a person daydreams is what's important. It should not take up all of your time.

(4)If people find their daydreaming is becoming excessive(过多的)they should take a realistic look at what's going on in their life and ask themselves what they are trying to avoid. Then they can assess what steps they need to take to correct the situation."(Anyone who has a hard tme discriminating between reality and imagination or starts replacing real life family and friends with imagined people should seek professional help.)(5)Professor Singer sums up the advantages of daydreams to the average person"by sitting quietly and letting your daydreams emerge instead of squelching(抑制)themyou may find there are parts of yourself you haven't been listening to. Instead of fearing themyou'll gain access to tremendous range of interestingcreative ideas."

Passage 2

In the 1990speople are very aware of how bad things are. As a resultthey completely ignore information about new developments and crises to prevent themselves from going "crazy".Today's leaders should therefor provide people with a sense that current problems are soluble(可以解决的). We need to break large-scale crises down to small manageable pieces rather than cause people to believe that the situation is even more complex and difficult that they thought. People need to believe that they can really do something within their own situationand to do thisthey must recognize that it is in their self-interest to change their behavior.











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